Types of Information Disorder
based on Claire Waddell


False information spread by someone who believes in what they’re sharing, thinking they’re helping others.


Genuine information that is used to inflict harm on others. eg. doxxing.


Intentionally false information designed to cause harm to individuals , organisations, or countries.
By Claire Wardle, Research Director at First Draft News

Misinformation In Terms Of Harm

It is no secret that misinformation can cause great harm, especially where rational discussions about politics and policy is concerned. However, for democracy to thrive and become the key to creating a better nation for all, we must be weary of misinformation and how it can be harmful to us as a society. Misinformation can range from innocuous to seriously harmful and we’ve collected several kinds of information disorders, arranged from most to least harmful, which you should be on the look-out for when educating yourself.

Fabricated Content

100% false content created to cause harm

Manipulated Content

Genuine content that has been altered or manipulated

Imposter Content

False or misleading content that makes use of well-known organisations’ names and or/logos in order to seem more credible and believable.

Content Framed Within A False Context

Genuine content reframed and re-circulated with the original context taken out.

Misleading Content

Information used misleadingly to frame issues or individuals in a certain way.

False Connections

Headlines/visuals/captions that don’t support the original content.


Parodies which can fool undiscrening viewers and circumvent fact-checkers.